This article considers the nature and patterns of labor migration in Vietnam since the introduction of market reforms or Doi Moi in 1986. Using data from the 1989 census, the article examines provincial or area characteristics and human capital resources in determining migration. Migration was found to play a role in providing human resources to labor-scarce areas and it has also become a means for people to improve their life chances. Among others, the findings indicate the selective impacts of market reforms on the migration propensities of men and women. Possible explanations for the findings and their policy implications of the results are discussed.